Corrosion is manifested by ulcers, cell death, and scar formation. The site of a corrosive effect can be any place on the body that the chemical contacts. This is often the skin or eye but can also be any mucous membrane . The following table illustrates how a chemical can be classified as a Highly Toxic or Toxic, depending on the results of the appropriate animal tests.
These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. The “immediately dangerous to life or health air concentration values ” are used by NIOSH as respirator selection criteria. They were first developed in the mid-1970s, and reviewed and revised in 1994. CD-ROMs containing the complete text of more than 80,000 MSDSs on chemical products contributed by over 600 manufacturers and suppliers.
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This designation indicates that appropriate measures should be taken to prevent skin absorption. A substance that can cause malformations or alterations in the appearance or function of a developing embryo.
Some affect the circulating blood elements, interfering with their function. Others damage the hematopoietic system and may prevent it from producing the blood elements. Generally speaking, corrosive materials have a very low pH or a very high pH . Examples of corrosive materials are sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid.
While one might consider the blood and hematopoietic system as independent tissues, they are intimately related. Toxins can act at various points in external hemorrhoids the hematopoietic/blood system.
- If an immunologic mechanism is responsible for the tissue reaction, the material will be classified as a sensitizer rather than an irritant.
- The difference between an irritant and a corrosive is the ability of the body to repair the tissue reaction.
- With irritants the inflammatory reaction can be reversed whereas with corrosive damage it is permanent or irreparable.
- The site of irritation is often the skin or eye but can also be any mucous membrane or other tissue that the chemical comes in contact with.
A chemical that has a median lethal dose of more than 50 milligrams per kilogram but not more than 500 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each. Polymerization is a reaction in which small molecules react with each other to form larger molecules . This raises the temperature of the monomer mixture that further accelerates the polymerization process until the reaction runs away or explodes. Oxidizers are classified by comparison with the oxidizing properties of a standard test chemical, ammonium persulfate, applied to dry, conditioned sawdust. A solid that promotes combustion of the conditioned sawdust at a greater rate than ammonium persulfate is classified as an oxidizer.
TWA. Time-Weighted Average; the concentration of a material to which a person is exposed, averaged over the total exposure time-generally the total workday ; also see TLV. A relative property of a chemical agent that refers to a harmful effect on some biological mechanism and the conditions under which this effect occurs. Any substance that can cause injury or illness, or which is suspected of being able to cause injury or illness under some conditions. TLV-Skin – The skin designation refers to the potential contribution to the overall exposure by the cutaneous route, including mucous membranes and the eye. Exposure can be either by airborne or direct contact with the substance.
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The conversion of a chemical from one form to another within the body. The time that elapses between exposure and the first manifestations of disease or illness. ANSI. The American National Standards Institute is a privately funded, voluntary membership organization that identifies industrial and public needs for national consensus standards and coordinates development of such standards. To meet the HCS requirements, it is recommended that a structured approach to data retrieval and compilation be adopted. This structured approach applies to preparation of MSDSs and labels.
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Parts per million; the proportion of a gas or vapor per million parts of air; also the concentration of a chemical in a liquid or solid form. In a literal sense, oxidation is a reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen. Any combination of two or more substances, if the combination is not, in whole or part, the result of chemical reaction. The most commonly used unit of measure in medicine and toxicity consisting of one thousandth of a gram (1×10-3 g). Milligrams of substance per kilogram of body weight, commonly used as an expression of toxicological dose (e.g. , 15 mg/kg).