There’s More Than The Cia And Fbi

Massive MIMO can improve both coverage and capacity and is a key technical solution for 5G network. But the deployment of Massive MIMO requires three considerations including performance requirements, installation requirements, and TCO saving. From a business perspective, 4K/8K video and VR are eMBB typical services. As shown in the following table, these services require a downlink throughput of 50 to 100 Mbps and an uplink rate of 3 to 5 Mbps . Scenario A is the easiest way, but it has also brought a big drawback.

On the other hand, NSA option 3 does not introduce 5GC and therefore may not be optimised for new 5G use cases beyond mobile broadband. In addition, depending on how 5G devices are developed, the EPC may need to be retained longer than in the case of having EPS for 4G alone . In addition to the monetary benefits, the mobile operators will be able to provide social benefits to the nation by bridging the digital divide gap between unconnected and connected. Furthermore, the broadband connectivity will enable advanced services such as e-learning and e-government, contributing to the better welfare of society. For mobile operators, the FWA provides cost-effective network deployment solution.

Both these techniques allow the uplink transmission to be switched between the FDD-band and the 3.5 GHz band. The key difference is that NR CA also provides NR on the FDD-band downlink, using 3GPP-specified LTE-NR spectrum sharing, if needed. This provides opportunity to aggregate NR bandwidth as well as better operation of the NR uplink. For early device chipset implementations, NR CA seems to be more widely supported than SUL. Non-standalone option 3 is where the radio access network is composed of eNBs as the master node and gNBs as the secondary node .

When evolving to 5G SA, this physical EPC based on dedicated hardware cannot be used in a virtualized environment. This scenario depends on the capabilities of the existing network equipment vendors. Compared to scenario A, scenario B can be smoothly evolved to the target network through the expansion of virtualized EPC. To support NSA, the 4G core network needs to do a small software upgrade to add or expand several parameters.

There is no need to make any modifications to the hardware. The overall process including handover is not different from that of 4G network.

What It Means To Be A Part Of The Nsa Family

  • It is responsible for the protection of government networks, among other snapsext duties.
  • The display is color coded, with green indicating a lower amount of data and red showing a high amount.
  • They do this by monitoring the broadcast airwaves, especially the largest communication network in the world, the Internet.
  • Once a part of the BND, this agency works under the auspices of Germany’s Interior Ministry.
  • Boundless Informant — This NSA computer program generates heat maps displaying the amount of metadata the NSA has at its disposal at any given time and can be sorted by country.

The standardised NSA EPC networking architecture includes Option 3, Option 3a, and Option 3x. To overcome this problem it has been proposed to utilise lower band spectrum such as the 1800 MHz spectrum for the uplink data. In the first step, this is done using option 3 EN-DC, where the uplink data is transmitted on the FDD-band using LTE. To optimize the coverage further, both NR uplink control and user data channels can be transmitted on the FDD-band. This can be done using either NR-NR Carrier Aggregation or Supplementary uplink .

As the wireless links are cheaper to set up and operate, the network cost in the last mile will be significantly reduced with FWA compared to the case of FTTx. This means that the broadband connectivity will be economically feasible with FWA that would otherwise have been infeasible. With FWA, mobile operators can enjoy the following business opportunities. “We always have fun partnering with NSA! They are just generally awesome people and enjoyable to work with! We value these types of clients at Pandora and look forward to continued partnership in the years to come.”

The NSA option 3, as it leverages existing 4G deployment, can be brought to market quickly with minor modification to the 4G network. This option also supports legacy 4G devices and the 5G devices only need to support NR protocols so the device can also be developed quickly.

The impact on 4G core network elements supports the NSA, which is shown in Table 1. Dual Connectivity used for Master eNodeB to connect to Secondary eNodeB has been standardized in the 4G network. NSA Option 3/3a/3x has adopted the 4G Dual Connectivity process.

Tinder Dating Meaning

In the Option 3x networking mode, there is a little LTE user plane traffic in the X2 interface. In the Option 3a networking mode, there is only control plane traffic in the X2 interface. In the Option 3 networking mode, the X2 interface traffic between eNB and gNB has NSA user plane traffic. The core network needs to increase the bandwidth of the S1-U interface to meet the LTE/NSA transmission requirements.